WORKSHOP PROCEEDINGS ON TWO DAYS WORKSHOP ON ‘SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF URBAN WATER BODIES’ 17th & 18th DECEMBER, 2012 at SEMINAR HALL, SRI. CHAMARAJENDRA ZOOLOGICAL GARDEN, MYSORE
FIRST DAY – INAUGURAL SESSION
Welcome speech was delivered by Sri B.P. Ravi, Executive Director, Sri.Chamarajendra Zoological Gardens, Mysore. He emphasised that only ecological features will take care of the future human needs. Human welfare is not only providing of 24×7 water supply and other services etc. but also management of ecosystem in sustainable manner. The Zoo Authority is involved in outreach and education programme for school children and is conducting a series of training programmes that are being organised to create awareness about aquatic plants and ecosystem. The Director welcomed all the dignitaries, participants and the media persons.
Sri. R.M.N.Sahai. IFS, Director, EMPRI delivered the key note address, emphasising the vital five important elements of human beings Land, Water, Air, Forest and Mothers care. And also discussed about Wild Life Protection Act. The Schedule 1 clearly mentions that poaching or killing of wild animal’s minimum seven year imprisonment for culprit. The deliberations will lead to formulation of recommendations that are implementable.
Sri.R.S.Suresh, Member Secretary, Zoo Authority of Karnataka discussed about concerned speakers should cover useful topics within the two days session and chalk out an implementable action plans and programmes in future.
Sri. Nanjunda Swamy, Chairman, Sri. Chamaraja Zoological Garden, has pointed out Mysore Zoo has been conducting workshops on regular basis and he expressed that the lakes are at a stake. A report can be prepared at the end of the workshop and submitted to Government.
TECHNICAL SESSION I: LAKE ECOSYSTEM
Chairman: Sri. A.C. Lakshmana IFS, Former Forest Secretary to Government of Karnataka.
Prof. U N Ravi Kumar emphasised on overview of ecosystem, biosphere, various types of wetlands etc. The encroachment of water bodies is due to indiscriminate urban development, as in case of Bangalore- reasons include transportation, cultivation, sewage disposal and siltation etc. Ecological functions of terrestrial system are significant- wetlands is play a very important role in water bodies conservation, Eco-tones, wetland plants, biotechnology wetlands, construction of bio-deck using local materials. CHINAMPAS –water based agriculture practice system is good example for management of wetlands and water bodies. The case example of Mysore includes the catchments of Karanji Lake, Bommanahalli lake.
Dr. Shankar P Hosmani discussed on Phycology of lakes (study on Algae in lakes) and types of algae – Eugleanceae, chlorococcales, Bacillariophyceae, Desmids, Desmedium (Chain Desmid), Closterium, Spirulina species, Dinofagellates (form in Drinking water), Haematococcus pluvalis, Nodularia spumigena, Anatoxins etc. Also discussed was the possibility of using the diatom data to obtain and model using the software to result in gives the ecological values of Ph, BOD level etc. The non desirable algae include arthrospira platensis and raphidiopsis medeteraina, filamentous algae are dangerous in the urban lake for examples Microcystis was found in Kukkarahalli Lake.
He had suggested some policy is required for reduce algae formation in water bodies and Nitrosamines culture spread to algae (adopted in Hussein Sagar Lake in Hyderabad)can reduce algae formation. The use of Phycotechnology- Earth bounding, algae utilisation is the need of the day. On another level, the algae structure and formation is source of inspiration to fashion designers for design and ornamentation.
Dr. M B Krishna spoke about wetlands for wildlife and the lake ecosystem as open house classroom for education. He emphasised on the wetland values for education, while seeking the recognition of the urban and sub-urban wetlands. Numerous examples of the Bangalore lakes were taken up.
Prof. K.B. Sadananda had discussed Flora of the water bodies – aquatic plants; aesthetical value of flora cannot be neglected in the discussion of the water bodies was emphasised.
Dr. S. Ravichandra Reddy had discussed on fauna of urban lakes and its Terrestrial zone, littoral zones and limonitic zones and fauna classification such as Periphyton – algae, Plankton, Benthos, Fishes, Amphibians, water snakes, turtle, Birds etc. Various instruments are available for assessing the sediment, etc. EKMAN GRAB an instrument is used to know the bottom sediment sampler. He discussed the various species of fishes that are present in the different water bodies.
In discussions, the following points were highlighted.
- Baseline information is important as the restoration can be centered on the environmental factors.
- Common platform is required to address the issues of technical, social and physical aspects for sustainable management of water bodies.
- Policy should be designed in such a way that water bodies’ ownership and management should be regulated by a single entity. The directions for restoration should be spelt out by the government sector, while it should yield some economic benefits. This can be inclusive addressing both the “have’s” and “have not’s”.
TECHNICAL SESSION – II LEGAL POLICY AND INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK
Chairman: Sri. M.B. Prabhakar, Advocate of Karnataka High Court, Bangalore
Sri. C. Venkatasubbaiah had discussed about ownership of lakes and under section 62 of Land and revenue settlements clearly mention that lakes and tanks are properties of Government. Public trust doctrine (Lakes and Tanks) mainly emphasised on all natural resources cannot be made commercial or turn into private property and recently Land with Title bill, GoI (www: dolr.nic.in) being processed from the parliament and NLRMP (National Land Records Modernisation Programme) were also initiated. The mirror principles is that you can see the real time the title deed, mortgage etc for particular survey number/properties. He emphasised on Supreme Court judgements of Mr. A S Mehta verses Sri. Kamalnath diverting the Beas for the purpose of resort, the Supreme Court ordered Sri. Kamalnath to cancel his plan and asked to restore the course of the river at its own cost and R. Hanumaiah verses Secretary to Government of Karnataka, 2010 Supreme Court case page 203. He pointed out Supreme Court also directed all High courts and lower courts should oversee the ownership of the government land prior to any judgment.
Sri. Munikrishan IPS has talk about reclaiming encroached urban lakes and catchment area and one of the important mile stones is GREEN BENCH was constituted in the Supreme Court. Human beings polluted the World beyond its recognition and tremendous advancement of science and technology increased our unhappiness and removed instinct happiness. And also discussed about feeder channels cannot be encroached or reduce the flow is punishable under IPC and wisdom can generate liberty.
Prof. Jagannath had pointed out Ecological Literacy Campaign were being organised from past five years and discussed about lakes conservation funded by ADB and ILEC (International Lake and Environment Committee) norms and standards and documentation of water bodies and should provide stakeholders space for management.
All the participants, policy makers and organiser visited Bommanahalli and Bogadi Lakes Sri B.P Ravi, Executive Director and Prof. Ravi Kumar explained what are the initiatives and difficulties for restoration of these water bodies and other institutional constraints.
SECOND DAY TECHNICAL SESSION I: WATER AND LAND USE IN URBAN CONTEXT
Chairman: Sri. R M N Sahai, IFS, Director General, EMPRI, Bangalore
Prof. T.V. Ramachandra -Changing role in urban wetlands
He emphasised on overview of the wetlands in Karnataka and wet land is about 3% of Indian landscape, wetlands mismanagement, spread of microphytes in water bodies, goods and services unpolluted and polluted. Policy should be focussed on conservation of future of wetlands, integration of catchment area to ensure lakes are perennial, physical integration, establish interconnectivity, remove of encroachment and stop introducing exotic species. Discussion about the urbanisation in Bangalore, urban sprawl, built up areas and phases of development, missing of lakes and the virtual conversion to various other urban uses, quantum of wastes dumped in undesignated places in Bangalore was carried out in brief. Implications of loss of water bodies, loss of sensitive habitats, declining ground water table and changing climate etc was highlighted with use of the remote sensing data and detailed analysis. Information on the research findings are on the website of the IISc, CES.
Mr. Gopiprasad S, Director, IDES Consulting Pvt. Ltd. presented integrating water bodies in urban development. Tracing the path of water bodies in different phases, focus on integration was necessary by the deployment of planning and development. Interconnected tanks, natural pattern verses urbanisation key conflicts, opportunities, offer possibilities for integration. The next level of restoration may pay attention on the resources potentials of management.
Mr. S Vishwanath, Rain Water Club, Bangalore presented the future role of tanks and manage aquifer, urban water management transition framework of cities, watersheds, sub-aquifers, hydrozonic connection between the chain of tanks, roof top rain water can be used for impoundment of water bodies and bio -diversity linking with housing level.
- Think of harvesting in storm water drains in Mysore the storm water flow from Hebbal to sewage form area of Vidyaranapuram
- Integration of water bodies at ward level and community level
- All valley should be treated as parks while forming the layouts
- Strong institutional framework within the democratic framework
- Simple equation of past, present and future for implementing water bodies
TECHNICAL SESSION II: LAKE RESTORATION AND MANAGEMENT
Chairman: Sri. G.V. Sugur, IFS, Additional Principal Conservatory of Forests (Development), Bangalore
Sri. Jagdeesh Nandi, Managing Director, JMSPL, Dharwad presented hydrology for Urban Lakes, past practices and governing factors with reference to the catchment area, characteristics, runoff, intensity of rainfall, cycles of floods etc. He also emphasised on present realities for hydrology in urban tanks, scenario of urban lakes, good documentation of urban lakes is limited, change of land use effect the hydrology of catchment area, lake rehabilitation and case of Dharwad urban lakes.
Mrs. Vanashree Vipin Singh, Director, EMPRI, Bangalore presented on assessment – derived conservation strategies for major lakes in Bangalore focusing to water bodies’ significances and pilot study of restoration of seven lakes and its environs of Bangalore were presented. The study has made assessment of Lake Health card /Lake Atlas, unique identity number, categorises of lakes based on characteristics, lake specific strategy and issues were mapped for 25 lakes and various provisions in different Acts and policies with reference to conservation and preservation of water bodies in rural and urban areas.
Policy level intervention
- Inventory of water bodies and provide unique identity number
- Issue notice under appropriate legislative framework for encroachment of lakes
- Prepare lake TIPPANI Map and provide details of extent, boundary description etc.
- Notify all the water bodies, valley zones, Raja Kaluves a ecological fragile zones
- Special court for deal with lake matters
Sri. Kulkarni, spoke on the duties and responsibilities of the citizen for management of water and waste is major concerns today.
- No attention for water into tank for restoration projects
- Rain water harvesting guidelines for catchment area at building level
- Instead of transportation of desiltation can be utilised within the lake itself.
- Karnataka Lake Protection Act
- Provision for arresting Eutropication of lake by using nitrosamines
- Community involvement for lake management to convergence at policy level or alternative institute at community level
- Comprehensive action plans for management of water bodies